Login

9.6 Pressures and socio-economic benefits



This part of the assessment is carried out in three steps.  First, the pressures associated with separate industries that impact the condition of the marine environment are assessed.  The total environmental footprint of the industry is examined and given a score based on the expert’s judgement of the industries’ impact on all aspects of the marine environment, including condition of habitat, species, ecosystem processes and physical-chemical processes.

 

To score environmental impact of marine-based industries (pressure), experts will follow these steps:

  1. Estimate a consensus score for the condition of the environment that coincides with the spatial footprint (i.e. the space where the industry operates) of the industry (eg. relative to 1900).  For Best 10% and Worst 10% areas, we focus on the spatial footprint of where the industry operates.  For example if it is estimated that the condition of the environment has not changed within an area of 10% of the industry footprint (with reference to the benchmark), then the Best 10% of places will have a score of 8.  Changes in condition of the environment should be attributable only to the industry under assessment. For example, if two or more industries are impacting on the same habitat we try to score only the impact of the one industry we are assessing.

  2. Assign a Confidence grade for the Condition estimate (High, Medium, Low).  The confidence score may be influenced by uncertainty in attribution of impact where two or more industries are impacting on the same area.

  3. Estimate the trend for the condition of the environment within the footprint of the industry (Improving, Declining, Stable) over the last 5 years that is attributable only to the industry under assessment (i.e. not including changes related to other, additional pressures, etc.).

  4. Assign a Confidence grade for the Trend estimate (High, Medium, Low).

  5. Identify the main anchor references, and any commentary/notes in any relevant column for the industry.

 

Pressures

Grading statements for pressures - the environmental impact of marine-based industries.

Very Good (7-8)

Low Pressure

This industry has caused no significant changes in the overall environment (condition of habitat, species, ecosystem processes or physical and chemical processes) within its footprint.

Good (5-6)

Moderate Pressure

This industry has caused some significant changes in some components of the overall environment, but these are not to the extent that they are significantly affecting ecosystem functions.

Poor (3-4)

Significant Pressure

This industry has caused substantial changes in many components of the overall environment, and these are significantly affecting ecosystem functions in some areas of its spatial footprint.

Very Poor (1-2)

High Pressure

This industry has caused substantial changes in many components of the overall environment across its spatial footprint and ecosystem function is seriously affected.

 

The second step is to assess the totality of all socioeconomic benefits that society receives from the industry.  There are several aspects that must be evaluated, including:

1) whether it is a major national employer, paying fair wages, either through direct employment or supporting industries;

2) whether or not the state receives significant taxes, royalties and/or license fees and if a significant portion of profits remain in the country;

3) whether the industry exploits a sustainably managed renewable resource;

4) whether the industry contributes to education and training programs, human health or medical benefits for its employees;

5) whether the industry creates national infrastructure such as roads, communication systems or other facilities;

6) whether the industry is mainly or wholly owned by national interests (i.e. the profits from the industry remain in the country).

The industry is given a score of from 1 to 8 based on the expert’s judgement.

 

To score socioeconomic benefits of marine-based industries, experts will follow these steps:

  1. Estimate a consensus score for the socioeconomic benefits derived from the industry.  Consider the spatial footprint of the industry and score the best and worst 10% of areas in terms of socioeconomic benefits received.
  2. Assign a Confidence grade for the benefits estimate (High, Medium, Low).
  3. Estimate the trends for the socioeconomic benefits (Improving, Declining, Stable) over the last 5 years.
  4. Assign a Confidence grade for the Trend estimates (High, Medium, Low).
  5. Identify the main anchor references, and any commentary/notes in any relevant column for the industry.

 

Socioeconomic benefits

Grading statements for the benefits society receives from marine industries – this is the total benefit including employment, taxes, royalties and license fees paid to the state, education and training, human health benefits and infrastructure (buildings, roads, etc.). It includes both the direct employment benefits as well as dependent and supporting industries.

Very Good (7-8)

High benefits

The industry is mainly or wholly owned by national interests and is a major national employer both through direct employment as well as through supporting industries.  The state receives significant taxes, royalties and/or license fees and a significant portion of profits remain in the country.  The industry exploits a sustainably managed renewable resource and contributes to one or more of: education and training programs, human health and medical benefits and national infrastructure.

Good (5-6)

Significant benefits

The industry is an important national employer both through direct and indirect employment and the state receives taxes, royalties and/or license fees.  The industry may contribute to education and training programs, human health or medical benefits. 

Poor (3-4)

Some benefits

The industry is a minor employer both through direct and indirect employment and the state receives some taxes, royalties and/or license fees.  The industry is partly or mainly foreign-owned.

Very Poor (1-2)

Few or no benefits

The industry is mainly or wholly foreign-owned and is not a nationally important employer, with most/all employment based overseas.  The industry exploits a non-renewable resource (or an unsustainably managed renewable resource) and the state receives very little from taxes royalties or license fees from this industry. 

 

The third step is to plot the environmental and socioeconomic scores for the industry on a graph to classify its overall rating (Fig. 3).  Thus the industry will be rated as having either: 1) low environmental pressure and high socioeconomic benefit; 2) low environmental pressure and low socioeconomic benefit; 3) high environmental pressure and high socioeconomic benefit; or 4) high environmental pressure and low socioeconomic benefit.

  

Figure 3. Matrix for assessment of environmental pressures and economic benefits for marine-based industries.  The optimum situation is for the combination of low environmental pressure (shown in green) to coincide with high socioeconomic benefits. The worst situation is for the combination of high environmental pressure (shown in red) to coincide with low socioeconomic benefits.